Everything Canadian Students Need to Know About Early Action vs. Early Decision vs. Regular Decision

19/11/202122 minute read
Everything Canadian Students Need to Know About Early Action vs. Early Decision vs. Regular Decision

It's university application season, and students across the globe are feverishly preparing their applications. From transcripts and letters of recommendation to essays and extracurriculars, the university application process is tedious and often stressful.

Many schools, particularly highly selective universities like Harvard or Stanford, offer early action and/or early decision options, and each year a handful of students choose this path. While the idea of submitting applications before the regular submission period may sound even more intense, there are enormous benefits to applying to US universities early. First and foremost, you're telling the school you're so passionate about their school that you picked them first! You're also showing the school that you have the fortitude and determination to complete an extensive application process months ahead of your peers.

You may even be rewarded with early relief and acceptance to your dream school if you apply early. But, before you start the process, it's important to be prepared and understand the implications associated with this path.

If you're unfamiliar with the early action, early decision, and regular decision processes, we're going to break each one down for you. By evaluating each option, deadline, and the pros and cons, you can make informed decisions about US university application submissions.

Early Action vs Early Decision vs Regular Decision Overview
Early ActionEarly DecisionRegular Decision
DeadlinesNovember 1stNovember 1stMid-December to Mid-January
AdvantagesNon Binding and high acceptance rateHigher acceptance rateApply to as many colleges you wish and make your final commitment without consequences
DisadvantagesOffered at limited universitiesBinding and limited financial aid availableLower acceptance rate and competing with a bigger applicant pool

Choosing Your Early Action or Early Decision Schools

Nearly 450 universities across the US accept early decision applications, and many offer both early decision and early action. Before starting the application process, list your top universities (based on qualifications and preferences) and categorize them into dream, target, and safety schools. It's to your advantage to apply early to your dream school because early applicants often have better odds of getting accepted.

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What is Early Action?

Early action applicants apply to colleges 2 months before regular applicants

If you apply for early action, you will submit your application two months earlier than the regular decision deadline (November 1st vs. January 1st). Students who apply early tend to be more proactive and driven, two qualities colleges look for in applicants. Universities are also flattered to know you chose to apply early to their university and that it ranked among your top choices.

If you apply early action and get accepted, you do not have to accept or reject the offer immediately. It is a non-binding acceptance. You can even wait until you've received decisions from all your applications before you decide.

Early Action Application Deadlines

With a few exceptions, most universities have early action application deadlines of November 1st for all students, domestic and international. See the Class of 2026 Early Action and Early Decision Deadlines chart below for a list of some of the top schools' early action/early decision deadlines.

Pros and Cons of Early Action


It's hard to find a reason not to apply early because if you are accepted, you can hold on to that offer and still apply to other schools on your list. Other advantages to applying early action include:

  • You can apply for non-binding early action at multiple schools (as long as their stated policies allow it).
  • Applying early gives you a higher chance of getting accepted.
  • You'll find out if you got accepted sooner than those who apply in the regular decision round.
  • If you are accepted, it cuts down on additional admission stress.
  • You can hold an acceptance from an early action school and apply to additional schools without a consequence.
  • You have the opportunity to apply and compare financial aid packages from many schools.

There are very few disadvantages to applying early. The main drawback to early action is that only a few institutions, including Harvard, MIT, Princeton, and Yale, offer early action. Selective universities can safely provide this option because they know you will probably accept their offer even if it's not binding.

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What is Early Decision?

Early Decision

Early decision is a binding agreement between an institution and a student, so you should only apply to that school if you're 100% sure you want to attend. If you're accepted in the early decision round, you must commit to attending that school. The institution wants to be sure that you will attend and that you don't receive or accept offers from other universities. This is part of their calculation in granting you admission before your peers.

Early decision is important to universities that are more uncertain of their 'yield' (the percentage of accepted students who actually attend). It's a way for them to consolidate a portion of their cohort early. Early applications also allow colleges to predict the fall student numbers more accurately before other institutions, allowing them to prepare better.

Early Decision Deadlines

Application deadlines for early decision and early action are typically the same. They fall around November 1st.

Pros and Cons of Early Decision


While both early decision and early action applicants have a higher chance of getting accepted. The odds are even higher for early action applicants because they show an even greater commitment to the institution. If you're 100% sure of your top school, it works in your favor to apply to that school in the early decision round.

Admissions officers understand the commitment that goes along with an early decision offer, so the fact that you're willing to apply under these circumstances means you're fully committed to attending that school.


The main drawback with early decision plans is that they don't work well for students who need financial aid. Universities typically don't have financial awards ready ahead of time, and students must decide before they see how much financial aid they will receive. If they wait for their financial aid package, they risk missing the admission deadlines of other schools.

Another disadvantage is that you can only apply for early decision at one school, so it's important to know without a doubt that you can attend that school and pay the tuition costs. If you reject an early decision offer, you cannot apply to that university again. The decision is final.

Early Decision I (EDI) vs. Early Decision II (EDII)

A few schools offer two early decision categories and deadlines (ED I and ED II). The main difference between these two is the deadline. The deadline for ED I is around November 1st, and ED II falls around January 1st. Acceptance rates for ED I are usually higher, but ED II acceptance rates are typically higher than the regular decision rates. The decision for both is still binding and still occurs before regular decision offers.

What is Regular Decision?

Students who apply during the regular decision cycle follow the standard application deadlines

Students who apply during the regular decision cycle follow the standard application deadlines. They compete with a larger group of applicants and must wait longer for each school's final decision.

Regular Decision Deadlines

Regular decision deadlines range from mid-December to mid-January. Schools typically notify students of their decisions between late March and early April.

Pros and Cons of Regular Decision


The main advantage of applying through the regular decision process is that you can apply to as many schools as you wish and make your final commitment without consequences.


The clear disadvantage is that most students wait until the regular decision period to apply for college. You're potentially applying to schools along with tens of thousands of other highly qualified students.

During 2021, top universities like Dartmouth and Brown filled 51% of their spots in the early rounds of applications. This is something Canadian students should consider if they’re looking to apply to a top US university.

Class of 2025 Early vs Regular Admission Stats
UniversityEarly Round ApplicantsEarly Round Acceptance RateRegular Round Acceptance Rate

Early Action and Early Decision for Canadian Students

Most universities allow international students to apply through their early action and early decision process

Most universities allow Canadian, or other international students to apply through their early action and early decision process. Attending university in the United States can be costly, though, especially for international students. Some universities may only accept early applications from international students who aren’t applying for financial aid. If money is an issue, international students shouldn’t enter into a binding early decision option.

It can be beneficial for international students to apply for early action or early decision (if offered). Universities like to show their commitment to diversity by accepting applicants worldwide. In fact, Columbia and Princeton recorded their Class of 2025 was nearly 15% international students from Canada, China, and India. If you’re a qualified international student, it would be to your advantage to apply early before equally eligible students apply during the regular decision round.

International students who get accepted through the early decision process can start making travel plans, obtaining visas, and gathering documents before the rush because they know in December which college they will attend in the fall.

If you’d like to study in the United States and take advantage of the early action and/or early decision application process, start by making a list of the colleges you’d like to attend. Then research each one to make sure there are no restrictions that apply to you.

Crimson Education helps students from around the world apply early and get into top universities in the United States. Contact us for a free consultation.

Why Should I Apply to University Early?

The 2019 State of College Admission Report stated that students who applied in the early action and early decision rounds had higher acceptance rates than those who applied during the regular decision round. Some colleges practice different admissions standards when considering early applicants, so it is wise to check each university’s standards.

Students with strong academics tend to apply early. Those who apply early also have a high interest in studying at a particular university which nearly guarantees they will accept the offer.

Here are more benefits to applying in the early action and early decision rounds:

1. Less Stress

You will spend less time waiting for a decision than your peers because early applicants typically hear from colleges in November. Additionally, you probably won’t apply to as many colleges in the early rounds, so you’ll answer fewer essay prompts.

2. Save Time and Expense

Since you’re not applying to as many colleges, you’ll spend less time and money on individual applications. Not only does this free you up financially, but it also means you have the latitude to pour your energy into that top application.

3. Extra Time to Prepare for College

If you get into your top university, you can wrap up your university search! You will have more time to sort housing, courses, and moving before heading off to college.

4. Reassess and Apply Elsewhere

If you don’t get into your dream university, you can still apply to other university. The application process will be easier because you already have experience filling out applications, and you have all the basic information ready to go.

Check out the list with the early action/early decision deadlines for a range of universities, as well as their expected notification dates.

Early Application Deadlines for Colleges
UniversityApplication DeadlinesExpected Notification Dates
HarvardNovember 1stMid-December
YaleNovember 1stMid-December
PrincetonNovember 1stMid-December
StanfordNovember 1stDecember 15th
U ChicagoNovember 1stDecember 15th
MITNovember 1stMid-December
CaltechNovember 1stMid-December
ColumbiaNovember 1stMid-December
BrownNovember 1stMid-December
CornellNovember 1stMid-December
UPennNovember 1stMid-December
GeorgetownNovember 1stDecember 15th
NorthwesternNovember 1stMid-December
DartmouthNovember 1stMid-December
NYUNovember 1stDecember 15th
DukeNovember 1stMid-December
Johns Hopkins (ED 1 & ED II)November 1st/January 3rdDecember 15th

In 2020, Princeton decided to cancel their early action applications. Thankfully, Princeton has reinstated its Single Choice Early Action program for the 2021-2022 admissions cycle. Please check the school's website for the deadlines of any school missing from this list, including the unique application and deadlines for the University of California system.

Crimson's professional admissions essay mentors are current students or alumni of top schools such as Harvard, Princeton, or Stanford. Find out more about how we can boost your candidacy for admission to a top US or UK university through our holistic admissions support service.

Early Action vs. Early Decision vs. Regular Decision: Which one is Right for You?

It never hurts to apply for early acceptance as long as you understand the process and commitment. Before you begin the application process, do your research. Choose your dream university or universities. Are you socially and academically a good match for these universities? You should meet or exceed the college's profile for SAT/ACT scores, GPA, class rank, and ideally, have a solid academic record. Make sure they are schools you really want to attend, especially if you're applying for early decision. You have to accept an offer from an early decision college.

Final Thoughts

First, universities need to fill their classes, and early applications allow them to consolidate a portion of the cohort early.

Second, you may apply for binding early decision and non-binding early action simultaneously, but if a binding program accepts you, you must attend.

Finally, do not place all your eggs in an early decision or early action basket—simply because you've applied does not mean you'll be accepted. Don't stop working on your other university applications until you've received an acceptance from your dream school.

Crimson helps both early action/decision and regular round applicants get into top universities. Crimson students are 4x more likely to gain admission to an Ivy League university, 3x more likely to gain admission to Stanford and MIT, 4 x more likely to gain admission to Duke, UChicago, and Northwestern, and 2x more likely to gain admission to NYU, UC Berkeley and UCLA. Check out our admissions support program to find out what we can do to help you get into top US and UK universities! Crimson's global network of expert strategists works with you to create your dream university application lists and execute a strategy for success.